conditions may be indicated by the blackened condition of the undersides of
streambed rocks. The general extent
oils and sediment deposits such
as sludge, sawdust, paper fiber, sand, or relict shells should be noted (Plafkin et
al. 1989). Any abnormalities should be evaluated to determine if further investi-
gation is needed on pollutant sources and impacts.
Course Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM). Plant debris (e.g., leaves, twigs,
bark) that accumulates in areas of slower moving water may be sampled for stream
benthos in the shredder group. Shredders are particularly sensitive to toxins that
often adsorb to CPOM (Plafkin et al. 1989).
Interstitial Water. The substrate-water interface is critical as macroinvertebrate
habitat. An evaluation of watershed land use or the water column may prompt
chemical analysis (nutrients, metals, toxins) of the quality of interstitial water
within the substrate and just above the sediment-water interface. Sampling depths
may be based on substrate characteristics and known habitat requirements.
Methods for collecting interstitial water are provided by Simon et al. (1985).
Water Column Parameters. An assessment of water column physical and
chemical constituents may be basic information for macroinvertebrate commu-
nity monitoring. Depending upon objectives, useful water column variables
include: temperature, dissolved oxygen,
ity, color, nutrients, alkalinity, conductivity, metals, pesticides, and toxins.
Stream Fish Habitat. To monitor the
of land treatment on stream fish,
Stream Fish Habitat
evaluate ecological conditions that will support the fishery and site potential.
fish habitat or riverine-riparian habitat includes the riparian vegetation and
the designated use of the land and water in the stream channel.
Land use management practices may cause fish population changes, but it is often
difficult to show causality. Changes in fishery management and angler harvest
also impair trend detection. Assessment of impact requires site-specific evaluation
of habitat conditions and fish population fluctuations both before and after
treatment (Platts and Nelson 1988). Many habitat features influence fish commu-
nities, and the variables and methods for their measurement can vary widely.
Stochastic events such as storms or drought should also be tracked since they can
regulate the structure of stream fish assemblages (Schlosser 1985).
Community Classification. A system of classification pro-
vides a basis for resource categorizing (Youngblood et al. 1985) and monitoring
along with BMP selection and application (Platts 1989). While unique
riparian communities may exist, the development of monitoring protocols is likely
to benefit from some method of classification. The classification can standardize
monitoringand provideaframeworkforcommunication between thescientist and
The riverine-riparian classification is based on a system of geoclimatic factors.
The classification is hierarchical and may be described in the context of mapping
scales as in Lotspeich and Platts (1982). The ecoregion is the largest mapping
scale, with successively smaller divisions such as geologic district, land type, land
forms. The lowest is the vegetation type. The concept is based on an integrated
land-aquatic classification that is used within ecoregions or when ecoregion
mapping units do not match the desired characteristics.