Monitoring Program Objectives
variables, such as water temperature, aquatic plant production, and dissolved
oxygen. Platts et al. (1987) provide information on the use of instruments to assess
vegetative and topographic features above the water column.
Streambanks. Ray and Megahan (1978) developed a procedure for measuring
streambank morphology, erosion, and deposition. Detailed streambank
ries may be recorded and mapped to monitor present conditions or changes in
morphology through time.
Platts et al. (1987) provide methods for evaluating and rating streambank soil
alteration to assess the effect of land-use changes on streambankstability and how
bankstability could affect fish. Other measurements that are likely to be important
for fisheries habitat evaluations include streambank undercut, stream shore water
depth, and stream channel bank angle.
type, and amount of organic material available as food
for macroinvertebrates and other levels of the food web in the stream environment
can be determined. Organic matter ranges in size from fine particles to whole trees,
and stability from living green plants to highly decomposed and refracting residue.
Platts et al. (1987) provide details on classification, measurement, and mapping
of organic matter for riparian evaluations.
Chemical and Physical Monitoring
The discussion of level I monitoring adequately describes the level of detail
needed for the monitoring of most chemical and physical variables. Monitoring
these variables for level II increases complexity of design. Monitoring pesticides,
chemically contaminated sediment, and sedimentation are the main themes of
level II chemical and physical monitoring.
Pesticides. Compounds likely to be a threat or to cause a known impairment
should be monitored to determine the level of contamination. Pesticide detections
are generally of concern. Also where standards are violated, then the risk to human
and aquatic health should be evaluated.
Because analytical procedures must be targeted to a specific pesticide or its
metabolite, the county health department should be involved in initial problem
assessments. Thereafter, state labs used for assessing environmental health should
be consulted. In addition, some out-of-state labs may be able to compete with the
quality control, quality assurance, and the costs of an in-state private lab.
Chemically Contaminated Sediment_ Impairment may be documented by
Chemically Contaminated Sediment
comparing contaminated sediments with sediments in reference areas or by a
identification and monitoring are provided by
(1988) in a review of the
present state of numeric- or chemical-specific methods and the more general
A compendium on monitoring sediment quality provides an overview of methods
that are used to assess chemically-contaminated sediments (Tetra Tech 1989).
Numeric methods for toxicity and tissue testing are given, along with descriptive
methods using benthos, to assess sediment quality using benthos. Sediment
chemical contamination, sediment toxicity, and benthic community structure are
assessed in the sediment quality triad procedure.