I

1F

2

∑

K

2

=

2

,

(6)

and we reject *H*0 if t0 > *t*α

or if t0 < *t*α

2,*n*-1

2,*n*-1

and is the type I error, or the probability of rejecting *H*0 when *H*0 is true. If *H*0 is rejected, we conclude

that the fixed monitor system does not represent the water quality of the stream at the α confidence level.

If *H*0 is not rejected, we conclude that "we have not found sufficient evidence to reject *H*0" (Hines and

Montgomery 1980). This may be because the monitor site accurately represents the stream or because the

sample size (that is, the number of comparisons) is so small that not enough data are available to make the

stronger conclusion to reject *H*0. So, for verification, we need a large enough sample size to minimize the

type II error (that is, the probability of accepting *H*0 when *H*0 is false).

Similarly, one-sided hypotheses can be tested as follows:

(7)

(8)

The rejection of the null hypothesis is considered a "strong" conclusion because we control

hand, the acceptance of the null hypothesis is considered to be a "weak" conclusion, because we

Thus, to determine the meaning of our conclusion when we accept the hypothesis that a

monitor represents the flow, we must determine the type II error. For the monitor location to be

acceptable, the type II error must be acceptably small.

To estimate the type II error, or β, a statistic *d *is calculated, and with α and *n*, β can be

determined from operating characteristic charts available in statistics books (Hines and

Montgomery 1980, p 604). Using Equations 5 and 6, we calculate *d *as follows:

(9)

Because we want only to correctly accept *H*0, we desire the power to be as close to 1 as

possible. The question then becomes, What's good enough?

Since we typically choose α to be 0.05, it seems reasonable to attempt to hold β to a similar

probability. However, because we have no direct control over β, probabilities less than 0.2 are

probably sufficient. Thus, we consider comparisons with the power greater than 0.8 to be

acceptable.

5