Quantcast Equipment and Materials

 
  
 
Appendix B: Bioengineering for Streambank Erosion Control -- Guidelines
Equipment and Materials
In the plan of development, consideration should be given to the equipment and materials
required for vegetation handling and planting at the implementation stage. The tools required
and the planting techniques will depend on the type of vegetation, i.e., woody or herbaceous,
the size of plants, soils, and the size of the project and site conditions. Freshwater herbaceous
plantings with low wave or current energy environments may call for tools like spades,
shovels, and buckets. In contrast, high energy environments of waves and currents may
require tools for bioengineering installations. Such tools include chain saws, lopping and hand
pruners for the preparation of woody cuttings, and materials for woody bioengineering
methods; or heavy hammers and sledges for driving stakes in bioengineering treatments such
as wattling and brush matting. Specialized equipment may be required. This is true when
moving sod or mulches containing wetland plants or plant propagules. It is also true since
bioengineering projects often have the constraints of working in a pristine stream system
where riparian corridors are extremely valuable, particularly in large, urban settings. It is in
these settings that equipment size and type constraints are often placed upon the project.
Thus, downsized front-end loaders and walking excavators are sometimes required to
minimize disturbance of existing vegetation and soil. Other equipment and materials may
include fertilizers, soil amendments, (i.e. lime), fencing for plant protection, and irrigation
equipment for keeping plants alive during dry conditions. Other equipment and materials for
keeping plants alive before they are planted may include shading materials such as tarps,
buckets with water for holding plants, and water pumps and hoses for watering or water
trucks.
Permit Acquisition
After the site analysis and bioengineering actions are determined, necessary permits must
be obtained, such as those governing any action impacting wetlands, water quality,
cultural/historical resources, threatened and endangered species, and navigation. Usually and
especially on smaller streams not requiring large structures or bank shaping as a part of the
design, the permit process will not be very complex or time consuming. However, on large
streams where deflection structures are employed or where banks are extensively shaped,
navigation, cultural resource, and wetland permits can take several months to acquire.
Acquisition of Plants
Prior to the implementation of the project, the plans for acquiring plants must be made
well in advance (sometimes 1 - 2 years). To select vegetation for the project, vegetation
existing on or near a site and on similar nearby areas which have revegetated naturally are the
best indicators of the plant species to use. If commercial plant sources are not available
(USDA, Soil Conservation Service, 1992), then on- or off-site harvesting can be considered.
When acquiring plants, care must be given to local or federal laws prohibiting such plant
acquisition and decimating the natural stands of wetland plants. Additionally, care must be
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