Appendix B: Bioengineering for Streambank Erosion Control -- Guidelines
calculations derived from Kay (1978), who reviewed contractor costs in California. The
above man-hour calculations assume the following: use of a four-man mulching machine,
seed and fertilizer applied at a rate of 0.75 ton per acre, and an application rate of 2 tons per
Sprigs, Rootstocks or Plugs, Rhizomes, and Tubers
Costs for digging grasses and other herbaceous plants in their native habitat and
transplanting propagules of these will vary depending on the harvesting system used, the
placement of the plants, and the site. For digging, storing and handling, and planting 1,000
plants of sprigged wetland grasses and sedges, Knutson and Inskeep (1982) reported a rate
of about 10 man-hours. Sprigs of this type were placed on 0.5-m centers, which would cover
250 sq m. For the same kinds of plants, Allen, Webb, and Shirley (1984) reported a rate
equivalent to 400 plants per 10 man-hours for digging, handling, and planting single sprigs.
According to Knutson and Inskeep (1982), using plugs of any species (grass or forb) is at
least three times more time-consuming than using sprigs (30 man-hours per 1,000 plugs).
Bare-root Tree or Shrub Seedlings
Depending on type of plant and local conditions, the reported costs of planting vary
considerably. On good sites with deep soils and gentle slopes, the authors have experienced
planting up to between 100 and 125 plants per man-hour. Logan et al. (1979), however,
estimated that only 200 to 400 plants per day per person could be achieved on sites like the
banks of the upper Missouri River.
Ball and Burlap Trees or Shrubs
Planting costs for this type of transplant will range from 10 to 25 plants per man-hour
The cost of plantings varies depending on plant species, pot type, and site conditions. By
using pots other than paper, 20 to 40 plants per man-hour can be planted. With paper pots,
up to 100 plants per man-hour can be planted (Schiechtl, 1980). Logan et al. (1979) stated
that the cost for hand-planting containerized stock ranges from one-half the cost for bare-root
seedlings to a cost equal to or exceeding that of the container seedling.