Quantcast CHAPTER 4: ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES

 
  
 
CHAPTER 4: ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES ............................................................... 4.1-1
4.1
Introduction to Enhancement Techniques ............................................................. 4.1-1
4.2
Watershed Techniques ........................................................................................ 4.2-1
4.2.1  Targeting or Command and Control......................................................... 4.2-1
4.2.2  Technological Descriptions ...................................................................... 4.2-2
4.2.3  Cost of BMPs....................................................................................... 4.2-22
4.2.4  Case Study........................................................................................... 4.2-22
4.2.5  References............................................................................................ 4.2-22
4.3
In-Reservoir Techniques: Selective Withdrawal................................................... 4.3-1
4.3.1  Multilevel Selective Withdrawal............................................................... 4.3-1
4.3.2  Hypolimnetic Withdrawal ........................................................................ 4.3-5
4.3.3  Underwater Skimming Weir or Submerged Curtains ................................ 4.3-8
4.3.4  Submerged Skimming Weir ................................................................... 4.3-10
4.3.5  References............................................................................................ 4.3-15
4.4
In-Reservoir Techniques: Operational Techniques ............................................... 4.4-1
4.4.1  Operational Curve Change ...................................................................... 4.4-1
4.4.2  Inflow Routing......................................................................................... 4.4-5
4.4.3  Supplemental Releases for Water Quality................................................. 4.4-7
4.4.4  Concentration of Flow Through One Gate ............................................. 4.4-11
4.4.5  Operational Optimization for Water Quality ........................................... 4.4-14
4.4.6  References............................................................................................ 4.4-19
4.5
In-Reservoir Techniques: Aerators/Oxygenation.................................................. 4.5-1
4.5.1  Description ............................................................................................. 4.5-1
4.5.2  Theory.................................................................................................... 4.5-1
4.5.3  Design Methodology ............................................................................... 4.5-4
4.5.4  Implementation........................................................................................ 4.5-4
4.5.5  Summary ................................................................................................ 4.5-5
4.5.6  References.............................................................................................. 4.5-6
4.6
In-Reservoir Techniques: Mixers ........................................................................ 4.6-1
4.6.1  Destratification........................................................................................ 4.6-1
4.6.2  Localized Mixing..................................................................................... 4.6-6
4.6.3  References............................................................................................ 4.6-11
4.7
In-Structure Techniques: Hydropower Facilities .................................................. 4.7-1
4.7.1  Problem Addressed ................................................................................ 4.7-1
4.7.2  Turbine Venting....................................................................................... 4.7-1
4.7.3  Auto-Venting Turbine Technology ........................................................... 4.7-5
4.7.4  Forced Air .............................................................................................. 4.7-9
4.7.5  References............................................................................................ 4.7-10
4.8
Tailwater Techniques........................................................................................... 4.8-1
4.8.1  Minimum Flow........................................................................................ 4.8-1
4.8.2  Aerating Weirs........................................................................................ 4.8-6
4.8.3  References............................................................................................ 4.8-10

 


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